Project 2

Background and Significance

Although many researches show that experiencing the tobacco consumption in Romania’s general population is high (reaching levels over 50%), it seems that beyond the eventual media ado there are very few real professional intervention and prevention programs to reduce this percentage.

With reliance on civil organizations, the mission of the project would be to encourage the revival of the communities’ health-preserving traditions using the tools of community organization. The feeling of togetherness experienced in common activities and cooperation has an impact on mental hygiene and can be used in the service of health preservation and prevention. The proposed intervention method is considered to be a pioneer in Romania.

 

Goals and Objectives

Goal: Smoke-free schools and environment

  1. Overall prevalence of tobacco use of adolescents
  • to reduce initiation of tobacco use among children and adolescents: increase (delay) the average age of first tobacco use
  • to reduce tobacco use
  • to increase number of quitters
  1. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
  • to reduce the proportion of nonsmokers exposed to ETS
  • to eliminate exposure to secondhand smoke in schools
  1. Smoke-free and tobacco-free schools
  • increase the proportion of smoke-free and tobacco-free schools

Objectives:

  • Change attitudes and behaviors towards smoking
  • Education about the immediate, as well as the long-term undesirable physiologic, cosmetic, and social consequences of tobacco use
  • Information about the reasons teens begin to smoke and offer them more positive means to achieve these same goals
  • Forming peer-counselors and NGO volunteers for refusal skills training and development

 

Preliminary findings on Tobacco use among young adolescents in Mureș, Harghita, and Covasna Counties:

Click here (PPT) and here (DOCX) to download file with preliminary findings.

 

Project director

Prof. dr. Enikő Albert-Lőrincz, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Sociology and Social Work, Cluj-Napoca

Team members until April 2014:

  1. Albert-Lőrincz Márton
  2. Szabó Béla
  3. Bernáth Krisztina
  4. Csibi Sándor

Team members from April 2014

  1. Albert-Lőrincz Márton
  2. Szabó Béla
  3. Bernáth Krisztina
  4. Gáspárik Ildikó

Our team mentors

  • Easterling Douglas, Ph.D., Wake Forest School of Medicine 
  • Urbán Róbert, Ph.D., Eötvös Lóránt University 
  • Paulik Edit, M.D., Ph.D., Szeged University

Institutions collaborating in the project

  • School inspectorates from counties: Mures, Harghita, Covasna
  • Psycho-pedagogical and vocational guidance centers from counties: Mures, Harghita, Covasna

 

Media communications 

June 2014– presentations of the program's significance, importance (on Radio Tirgu- Mures - ALE)

 

Oral presentation at conference

ZILELE UNIVERSITĂŢII DE MEDICINĂ ŞI FARMACIE - SESIUNEA ŞTIINŢIFICĂ A CADRELOR DIDACTICE 13 - 15 DECEMBRIE 2012

(Person who presented at the conference: Enikő Albert-Lőrincz)

Title: Focusing on local communities' specificities in the study of smoking behavior

Author(s) details:

Prof. Enikő Albert-Lőrincz PhD, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Sociology and social work

Lecturer Szabó Béla PhD, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Sociology and social work

Csibi Sándor PhD, Researcher, School counselor, Psycho-pedagogical Assistance Office

Lorand Schmidt, director of DJASPC Mures

Abstract

Keywords: smoking attitude, cultural specificities, internal images

Introduction: The presentation has a comprehensive background provided by UMF, Romania and Davidson College, USA joint research, containing previous results. Our data draw the attention that attitudes toward psycho-active drugs need to be assessed in relation to the characteristics of the local community to which the person belongs. Similarly, prevention activities should consider the cultural features of the target group. We explore motivational elements taking visual forms that determine through the deeper psychological structures the attitudes toward smoking. Our investigations are built to the Jungian idea that the behavior is led by internal images, and by reactivation of experiences' condensed into units.

Objectives: To study the variety of adolescents' drug use habits belonging to local community by using traditional epidemiological analysis - smoking habits are presented. We analyze the historically conditioned common attitudes and the fundaments of deeper psychological structures - we investigate smoking-related images through symbol analysis.

Material and methods: We used a questionnaire and a projective method; the collected data were subjected to symbol analysis. As a result, we obtained answers about the orientation of the needs, desires, and motivations of the interviewees, and about the internal models and motivations leading their behavior. Our data emphasize the subjective importance of the drug consuming behavior and within this of the smoking for the participants. A total of 100 students in Tirgu Mures and Eger (mean age 16.5 years) were included.

Results: The specific community life of the individual results in significant differences in their attitudes towards smoking. We obtained different pictures about the two populations concerning the predictive and protective factors' systems as well.

Conclusions: The cultural features differences of the target group should be respected in the prevention, by mobilizing those community resources which are rooted in the shared desires, fears, and daily practices, rituals, and values.

 

Oral presentation at conference and article published in extenso

Lumen International Conference Logos Universality Mentality Education Novelty , 2013, (Person who presented at the conference: Enikő Albert-Lőrincz)

Title: Need to change the optics in the prevention of addictive behaviors. The role of local communities in prevention of smoking.

Autor: Prof. Enikő Albert-Lőrincz PhD, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Sociology and social work

Keywords: smoking attitude, cultural specificities, internal images

Background: The presentation has a comprehensive background provided by UMF, Romania and Davidson College, USA joint research, containing previous results. Our data draw the attention that attitudes toward psycho-active drugs need to be assessed in relation to the characteristics of the local community to which the person belongs. Similarly, prevention activities should consider the cultural features of the target group.

Purpose of Study: We explore motivational elements taking visual forms that determine through the deeper psychological structures the attitudes toward smoking. Our investigations are built to the Jungian idea that the behavior is led by internal images, and by reactivation of experiences' condensed into units.

Objectives: To study the variety of adolescents' drug use habits belonging to local community by using traditional epidemiological analysis - smoking habits are presented, We analyze the historically conditioned common attitudes and the fundaments of deeper psychological structures - we investigate smoking-related images through symbol analysis.

Material and methods: We used a questionnaire and a projective method; the collected data were subjected to symbol analysis. As a result, we obtained answers about the orientation of the needs, desires, and motivations of the interviewees, and about the internal models and motivations leading their behavior. Our data emphasize the subjective importance of the drug consuming behavior and within this of the smoking for the participants. A total of 200 students in Targu Mures and Eger (mean age 16.5 years) were included.

Results The specific community life of the individual results in significant differences in their attitudes towards smoking. We obtained different pictures about the two populations concerning the predictive and protective factors' systems as well.

Conclusions and Recommendations: The cultural features differences of the target group should be respected in the prevention, by mobilizing those community resources which are rooted in the shared desires, fears, and daily practices, rituals, and values.

 

A VI-a Conferinta Nationala de Psihodrama, 2013 oct.

(Workshop: Eniko Albrert-Lorincz)

Title: Community based tobacco prevention with psychodrama

Objectives: Our general goal is to promote the wider application of psychodrama in addressing problems from the social sphere. The method can be very well used in researcher’s participatory and action. We aim to demonstrate how to apply the psychodrama for the purposes of health promotion and reducing health disparities. The workshop’s goal is to prove the application of psychodrama in the tobacco use prevention by using:

  • The strengthening of the individual and the community identity,
  • The strengthening of the feeling of belonging to the community,
  • The recognition of the community based health protective habits and their integration in to the own behavior,
  • To build on the community resources, which derived from the cultural, national, historic and religious traditions they grew up within and in order to protect health

Background: The addiction may indicate the formation of an identity crisis. The tobacco can be qualified as a psychoactive substance as cause's changes in thinking, mood, emotion and even behavior. Therefore, smoking prevention must be a task for social and community functions. Since smoking is related to the search for identity the prevention must involve an individual's family and community life as well. We believe that the drug issue needs to address problems from ethno-psychological approach, to discuss a psychological disorder, and its possible causes and treatment of the patients through their own cultural group features, traditional system of healing. The prevention must be adapted to the characteristic community tradition, mentality, by using the knowledge of the community.

Keywords: Community based prevention, smoking attitude, cultural, national, historic and religious traditions of the local community

 

Oral presentation at conference and article published in extenso

The International Scientific Conference LITERATURE, DISCOURSE AND MULTICULTURAL DIALOGUE 1-st EDITION, 5-6 DECEMBER 2013, TÎRGU MUREŞ

(Person who presented at the conference: Enikő Albert-Lőrincz)

Title: Community-Based Prevention and Cessation of Tobacco Use among Young Adolescents

Background: The presentation has a comprehensive background provided by UMF, Romania and Davidson College, USA joint research, containing the conceptual model of the research and some preliminary results.

In our approach, we assume that smoking is a problem of adaptation as a form of activity that artificially seeks spiritual balance and creates a positive feeling. Often the adolescents risk behavior is a component, but it can become also a tool in their search for identity.

The tobacco can be qualified as a psychoactive substance as cause's changes in thinking, mood, emotion and even behavior. Therefore, smoking prevention must be a task for social and community functions.

Objectives and methods: Our study regarding prevention through community is based on one hand on our experience in the study of addiction, and on the other hand the analysis of preliminary data. Our main goal it's not the communication of the quantitative results, instead we intend to formulate the theoretical conclusions that can be deriving from our analyses. We do this with the intention of serving the young researchers who need to see the conceptual model, the research design to be able to design your own research.

We believe that only prevention programs that are adapted to the local conditions and socio-cultural environment will show a relevant efficiency.

Conclusions: The cultural features differences of the target group should be respected in the prevention, by mobilizing those community resources which are rooted in the shared desires, fears, and daily practices, rituals, and values.

Key words: smoking habits, attitude towards smoking (active - passive smokers), design of community-based prevention, conceptual model,

 

Article published in extenso 2014

Author(s) details:

Albert-Lorincz, Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Sociology and Social Work,

Csanad Albert-Lorincz – attorney at law, Cluj Bar, associate assistant lecturer, Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Sociology and Social Work

Title: The practice of the integrated prevention, in JOURNAL OF ROMANIAN LITERARY STUDIES, 4/2014 ISSN: 2248-3004, Web site: http://www.upm.ro/jrls/index.html

Abstract

Our study regarding the theoretical and practical aspects of the integrated prevention is based on a specific methodological design and analysis of the gathered data. However, our main goal it's not the communication of the quantitative results, instead we intend to formulate the theoretical conclusions that can be deriving from our analyses. Our data were gathered through analyses last for more than two decades, applying questionnaires, interviewing and focus group experiences regarding the problematic of drug consuming, and our goal is to raise this information to a level of theoretical conceptualization.

The actuality of our study is given by the fact that data provided by both our research and international literature show that deviances, including the frequency of drug use is manifesting an ascendant trend. Topics about prevention are present among the resources and discussions in home specialty literature for decades, in campaigns or rather sporadically. However, we can observe a lack of regional or national coordination, and planned collaborative prevention practices. In the same time, we rarely find an aggregation and summarized interpretation of the national research data, which allows the translation of them into theoretical models. Our goal is to fill this gap through our analyses.

We believe that only prevention programs that are adapted to the local conditions and socio-cultural environment will show a relevant efficiency. Nowadays, they are being used the same universal programs from America to Europe.

In our study, we perform to a theoretical explanation of prevention, this way raising the possibility of an attitude change, and the establishment of a national data-based preventative approach. In our approach, we integrate the concepts present in the international literature of prevention. Furthermore, we are subtracting those conclusions on which bases the prevention can be interpreted as a tool for community mental health and sharing those aspects that contribute to the design and implementation of efficient prevention. We also provide theoretical models serving the design and the implementation process of prevention, besides introducing a new concept: the designation of integrated prevention, based on our analyses.

Keywords: Community mental health - health promotion - direct and indirect prevention - prevention levels - reactive prevention - protective factors - predictive factors - individual and community tailored - Integrated prevention.

 

Articles published in extenso 2013

ALBERT-LŐRINCZ E., coautori ALBERT-LŐRINCZ M., SZABÓ B. CSIBI S., BERNATH K., 2013, Community Development for teenage smoking prevention Buletinul Institutului Pedagogic Iasi, Tomul LVIII(LXII), FASC. 1-2, 2013, Ştiinţe Socio-Umane, ISSN 1011-2855

Title: Community Development for teenage smoking prevention

Autors:

Prof. Enikő Albert-Lőrincz: Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, The Faculty of Sociology and Social Work

Conf. Martin Albert-Lőrincz: SAPIENTIA University, The Faculty of Technical Science and Humanities – Târgu Mureş, the Department of Applied Social Science

Lector dr. Szabó Béla: Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, The Faculty of Sociology and Social Work

dr. Csibi Sándor: Researcher, School advisor, The Centre of psycho-pedagogy, Tg. Mureş

drd. Bernath Krisztina, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, The Faculty of Sociology and Social Work

Abstract

Context: Community Development for teenage smoking prevention is one of the themes approached by the project Building Capacity for Tobacco Research in Romania, which was initiated by Davidson College (USA) and coordinated by UMF Tg. Mureş.

The research questions refer to the ways through which local communities can influence the behaviour of adolescents. We based the study on the assumption that social inadequacy should be interpreted and treated in the specific context of local communities, taking into consideration the local mentality, the specific traditions and values, cultural models and the socio-ethnic habits from the area. Our research show that both smoking habits and smoking prevention are determined by the socio-cultural and ethnic context.

Our basic idea was that prevention must aim at the development of the motivation-evaluation dimension of personality – i.e. the affective-motivational structure, at the level of needs, wishes, anxieties, complexes etc – and at orientation, on which the development capacity of the person depends. The accent must lay on mobilizing basic (archetype) resources of the individuals and the communities.

Our objective is to fundament prevention – and especially active and passive prevention – through actions of the local community. Specific objectives: 

  • The detection of the specific risk and prevention factors of the studied local communities , from the point of view of the attitude towards smoking
  • The creation of partnerships with different local organizations and of community actions, so that the craving for sensations is satisfied through collective activities which have a positive value for health.

Methodology: the collection of data is done using questionnaires, interviews and a projective test from a sample of 200 adolescents aged 14 – 15, from Transylvania.

Results: 

  • Inter-generational communication is necessary, as well as the transmission of pro-health traditions of the local communities
  • Satisfaction of basic needs: positive emotional experiences, rituals, community involvement, pro-health set of values
  • Catalysing the individualization process, running through its stages within the context of the XXIst century: an offer of prosocial behaviour models
  • Sustain for adolescence in self-development, self-determination, the modelling of pro-social habits.

Thus results the necessity of empowerment through actions of the local communities and sustaining of the individualization process in adolescents.

Articles published in extenso 2015

1. Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, 2015. Experiences in connection with organizing community prevention in 38 schools from Harghita and Covasna counties. In International Conference volume: Globalization, Intercultural Dialogue and National Identity (GIDNI 2, Psychology, Education Sciences), p.10-19, ISBN 987-606-93692-5-8 http://www.upm.ro/gidni2/?pag=GIDNI-02/vol02-Pse

Abstract
This study came into existence by way of the conceptualization of the experiences gathered while organizing community prevention in 38 schools from Harghita and Covasna counties. Community prevention is a research topic within the Community-Based Prevention and Cessation of Tobacco Use among Young Adolescents1 project initiated by Davidson College, Medical Humanities, Davidson, NC, USA and coordinated by UMF Tg. Mureș, with a team from UBB Cluj also taking part. It is an intervention study comprising two parts: the first is a quantitative and transversal study via a self-administered and supervised questionnaire poll, while the second part had the objective of devising a prevention program adapted to the specifics of local collectivities where our sample comes from.
Methods: sample size: 1200 persons form Harghita, Covasna and Mureș counties. The intervention was done in Harghita and Covasna, while Mureș County was considered to be the control group. The margin of error is ±2.9% at a probability level of 95%. Data gathering: self-administered, supervised questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered between 10 and 31 March 2014.
Results: The empirical study revealed the following: out of the population of adolescents studied, 51.95% had never smoked, 30.85% only tried smoking once, 11.25% had smoked or smoke occasionally and 5.9% had smoked or smoke regularly. 43.5% of homes with children were defined as smoke-free houses. 46.8% of the children had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home for at least one day in the past 7 days prior to the study. These data prove the necessity of addressing smoking prevention in teenagers. The prevention program implemented in the 20 collectivities from our sample comprised 5 interactive activities taking place within the pupil collectivities and 5 community activities in which parents and teachers from the local collectivities were also involved.
Conclusion: we were able to successfully carry out the intervention program in the 38 schools (more than 500 adolescents) with the help of volunteers (76 persons). Qualitative assessments indicated the parts of the program that were more successful and those that were less accessible to the teenagers. The importance of inter-generational communication and the positive effect of shared parent-adolescent activities have been proved; in the latter, teenagers could experience situations in which they have responsibilities and are supported and appreciated according to the level of effort invested. We have laid the foundations of a prevention network in the two counties involved in our project. Based on the experiences gathered we have developed explanatory models with regard to community prevention. 
Keywords: smoking, community prevention, local community, levels of intervention

2. Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, 2015: Title: Practical approaches of the drug-prevention, Journal of Romanian Literary Studies (JRLS), nr .6. p. 21-27., E-ISSN: 2248-3004, http://www.upm.ro/jrls/
INDEX COPERNICUS / DOAJ / EBSCO HOST / SCOPUS / THOMSON-REUTERS WEB OF KNOWLEDGE / SCIPIO

Abstract. In our study we offer a practical explanation of the prevention  which can contribute to a change of  perspective and to long-term, multilevel interventions.
Topics about prevention are present among the resources and discussions in home specialty literature for decades, in campaigns or rather sporadically. However, we can observe a lack of regional or national coordination, and planned collaborative prevention practices. In the same time, we rarely find an aggregation and summarized interpretation of the theoretical models. 
Our study presenting the practice of the integrated prevention is a theoretic paper, based on research experiences and with the purpose to offer orientation to those deal with the planning of the school-related preventive programs and activities. Our study raises to theoretic level the empirical dates which we have gained through various researches focused on drug-related topics in the last decade.
Key words: levels of prevention-integrated, process of the implementation, prevention-multilevel planning, principle relating to prevention

3. Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, 2015: The effectiveness of the ethnographical viewpoint in prevention, Acta Universitatis Sapientiae - Social Analysis, Vol. 3. Nr. 2, Editura Scientia (Scientia Publishing House),   ISSN 22480854, eISSN 20697449, p.193-203. http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-social/social-main.htm
Ulrich's Web Global Serials Directory, Index Copernicus International, SCIPIO Scientific Publishing & Information Online.

Abstract. Our theoretical goal is to promote health as value and to facilitate young people to pursue a healthy lifestyle. The novelty of our methodological approach is based on the knowledge of local customs in the community and that of the self-protective rituals in service of health promotion. Our analysis attempts to ascertain whether there are significant differences between adolescents from Târgu Mureş (Romania) and Eger (Hungary) regarding their attitudes towards the community and towards ethnobotanicals and their consumption patterns. We were also interested in whether there is any difference between the two local communities with regard to the experiences of the users that they are connected to. Our participants were 200 students aged 14-16. The methods we used were questionnaires, interviews and projective tests. The data were processed mainly by qualitative analysis, and content analysis was also performed. Our results shows significant differences in the following: among the Romanian teenagers, situational anxiety, the needs for control and self-realization were more frequent. Among the Hungarian teenagers from our population, we revealed that the search for situational and societal incentives and contingency, the need to improve performance, the need for protection and the search for self-justification were more typical. We share a vision of prevention design in which the person is accustomed to local cultures (with the customs and values of the community). Community action will only be utilized by adolescents in situations when there is an emotional bond between the adolescents and the social environment. In order to ascertain this, we examined the importance of the community in the life of adolescents.
Keywords: community custom, synthetic cannabis consumption, health promotion

Articles published in extenso 2016

Albert-Lőrincz M., Albert-Lőrincz E., Barna G., Bernáth K., Szabó B. (2016): Módszertani megújulás a serdülőkori dohányzás megelőzésében, in  Krizbai T. (szerk.) Egészségtükör. Közös erővel az egészségért, Scientia Kiadó, Kolozsvár. ISBN: 978-973-1970-95-0 (973-1970-95-9), Pp. 37-54. (The study was submitted for publication 2014)
Title: NEW REASONS FOR ADOLESCENT SMOKING PREVENTION METHODOLOGY

Abstract: Adolescent smoking is considered an adaptation problem related to identity search, because adolescents link smoking to adulthood. We treat it as a problem, because adolescent smoking – direct or indirect, in addition to the harm for themselves and for others – may herald future deviant behaviour. Preventing it should be among the goals of the social responsibility. Despite the worldwide decline in smoking frequency, data on adolescent smoking have not improved, but show that the age for becoming a smoker or for trying smoking is decreasing. The international data is congruent with our research (Albert-Lőrincz & co., 2013). Referring to the situation, we note that the models used by now to investigate prevention, which focused mostly on information from schools, or on personality development, did not generate the expected outcomes. Presumably, this situation may also be caused by the transformation of family life style models, by the atomization, loosening of communities, as their support functions weakened. Based on the underlying ideas, we concluded that the emphasis should be shifted from the individual to the community, in what adolescent smoking prevention is concerned, and that the community prevention model should be disseminated primarily. This theory is put into practice within the framework of an international program initiated by the Davidson College from South Carolina as part of a five-year project, which is coordinated by the Public Health Department of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy from Târgu Mureș.  
Keywords: adolescent smoking, attitude towards smoking (of active and passive smokers), psychological background of smoking,  culturally specific prevention program

Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, Gáspárik Ildikó Andrea, Albert-Lőrincz Márton, Bernath Krisztina, Dániel Botond, Szabó Béla, 2016: Beszámoló egy nemzetközi projekt keretében zajló a serdülők dohányzási szokásait vizsgáló beavatkozó kutatásról, Korunk Korunk III. Évfolyam, 11., p. 90.-98.  KOMP-PRESS, ISSN: 1222-8338

Abstract. Jelen kutatási beszámoló megírásának célja az, hogy ismertessen egy olyan feltáró-beavatkozó kutatást, amely Erdély 3 megyéjére terjedt ki, számba vette a kiindulási helyzetet – a serdülők dohányzáshoz való viszonyulását és dohányzási magatartását –, új szemléleti keretbe helyezte a megelőzést – a hangsúlyt a helyi mentalitásra és erőforrásokra helyezve. A kutatók négy erdélyi egyetem oktatói, a koordinátor a Marosvásárhelyi Orvosi és Gyógyszerészeti Egyetem, a kezdeményező a Davidson College (AEÁ), majd partnerként lépett be a Wake Forest School of Medicine (AEÁ), a finanszírozó a Fogarty Alapitvány (AEÁ). A projekt öt évet ölel fel és négy szakaszra osztható. 
A beszámoló bemutatja a vizsgálat és a beavatkozás fogalmi kereteit, a kutatás folyamatát, majd adatokat közöl a serdülőkori dohányzásra vonatkozóan. 
Kulcsszavak: serdülőkori dohányzás, közösségi megelőzés, közösségi erőforrások, dohányzás ellenes törvény

Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, Albert-Lőrincz Márton, Bernáth Krisztina, Gáspárik Ildikó Andrea, Szabó Béla, 2016: A dohányzás közösségi megelőzésének szükségessége és lehetőségei Erdélyben (The need and possibility of community-based smoking prevention in Transylvania), in Szociálpedagógia, 2016. Nr. 1., p 64-73. ISSN: 2064-2709.

ABSTRACT: The study is based on an ongoing joint research of the Târgu Mureş University of Medicine and Pharmacy and Davidson College from USA related to smoking prevention. Some of the objectives of the study in 3 Transylvanian counties were: the assessment of adolescents’ smoking habits, the proof of the need for community prevention, the development of a methodology which applies to local characteristics, and the implementation of a community-based prevention plan.
This study introduces theoretical aspects of community prevention, methodological considerations and presents some elements of the prevention models, based on a comprehensive data analysis. Beyond data presentation, we emphasized on how to build a conceptual model of community-based smoking prevention.

Albert-Lőrincz Márton, Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, Bernáth Krisztina, Szabó Béla, Gáspárik Ildikó, Barna Gergely, 2016: A közösségi reziliencia és a serdülőkori dohányzás összefüggése, (The relationship between community resilience and adolescent smoking behavior), in Szociálpedagógia, Nr. 2.,  p. . 5-16.  ISSN: 2064-2709.

Abstract. Background and objectives: Our study investigates the theoretical and practical relationship between community resilience and adolescent smoking behavior, based on the assumption that experiencing the supportive, protective and regulatory power of local communities and neighborhoods influences adolescent smoking behavior, it delays the early testing and it reduces the prevalence of regular smoking. The study is based on an ongoing research related to smoking prevention.
Methods: Empirical, self-administered questionnaire based study, random, stratified, multistage sample, delivered in Mureș, Harghita and Covasna Counties, Romania. 
Results and conclusions: The community relationship showed significant association with the smoking behavior, the risk of smoking was higher among those young people who had less contact with the local community. There was a significantly lower number of regular smokers among those adolescents who perceived restrictions by their family and community in relation to smoking and those with higher social capital.

Szabó Béla, Albert-Lőrincz Márton, Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, Gáspárik Ildikó, Bernáth Krisztina, Barna Gergely, 2016. A serdülőkori dohányzás családi háttere Maros, Hargita és Kovászna megyei mintán, (Family background influence on adolescent’s smoking on Mures, Harghita and Covasna sample), in PedActa, volum 5 number 3., pp. 81-89. ISSN 2248-3527.

Abstract. Theoretical background: Cigarette consumption might be considered as a lifestyle model. The formation of this lifestyle model in childhood and adolescence is considerable due to the socio-cultural environment in which socialization take part. According to this we realized a survey on attitudes and behavior of adolescents related to tobacco consumption, respectively family-related factors that may influence it. 
Methods: The data collection of our quantitative, cross-sectional survey was based on a self-reporting questionnaire, using a representative sample in Mures, Harghita and Covasna counties. In shaping the sample, we have selected 36 schools of 26 localities. The data collection took place totally in 72 classes of 7th and 8th grades. The mean age of the responders was 14.67 years. The database was weighted for 1200 responders with respect to the distribution of the students in the used layers (county, size of locality, language of teaching). The results are valid on 95% within a ±2,9 error limit. 
Results:
Adolescents smoking, adolescent’s attitudes on smoking, adolescent’s behavior on smoking, family determinants of smoking

 

Oral presentation at conference:

Magyar Addiktológiai Társaság IX. Országos Kongresszusa 2013. november 21-23

(Person who presented at the conference: Enikő Albert-Lőrincz)

Title: Planning community prevention through evidence-based practice intervention

Author(s) details:

prof. dr. Albert-Lőrincz Enikő

prof. dr. Ábrám Zoltán

Abstract

Objective: The background of the presentation is based on an ongoing research run by University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Targu Mures (Romania) and Davidson College (USA) with a focus on tobacco prevalence. The presentation is the continuation of the ethno-psychological pre-research presented on the addiction treatment conference in 2011.

We would like to draw a possible model for community prevention through evidence-based intervention. In the process of the elaboration we are taking into account several factors which are considered to have an influence on adolescents’ relation with tobacco: the attitude of parents, school and local authority employers regarding the tobacco, the NGO’s that may be involved in prevention programs, prevention programs of the local schools, the adolescents relation with the local community, local customs and habits which may provide health protection for the young generation.

Theoretical background: According to the principles of the evidence-based practice the professional decisions of the prevention should be based on scientific results. The procedural steps should be considered acceptable if it combines the perspectives of the clients (in this case: adolescents), the peculiarity of the local community, the experience of the parents, pedagogues, and professionals, as well as the results of the dedicated filed of science.

The prevention is performed through the ethno-psychological approach, which means that the consumption, its possible reasons and the intervention is planned in accordance to the client’s community culture, mentality and healing traditions.

Method: As measuring instrument a questionnaire is used. We also planned interviews and focus groups. The intervention-research involves 1200 pupils from the VII and VIII grade from five different sociocultural and ethnical local communities and also other members of it: 100 parents, 100 pedagogues, 50 local citizens over 60 year old, 50 local decision maker and 6 local NGO. The data from the diverse sources will be linked based on the Rapid Assessment.

Results and conclusion: In the actual phase of the research the shape of the evidence-based community intervention plan has outlined. We are presenting the model which summarize the short-middle and long term intervention actions.

 

Oral presentation at conference and article published in extenso (in print)

2014, Plenary meeting of the Psychological Society – Targu Mures

(Person who presented at the conference: Márton Albert-Lőrincz)

Title: Methodological renewal in adolescents smoking prevention

Author(s) details:

dr. Albert-Lőrincz Márton:

dr. Albert-Lőrincz Enikő:

dr. Szabó Béla:

drd. Bernáth Krisztina:

drd. Barna Gergo:

Abstract

Objective: The background of the presentation is based on an ongoing research run by University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Targu Mures (Romania) and Davidson College (USA) with a focus on tobacco prevalence. Presently, in the second year of the research, we have empirical data from a pre-research and the theoretical models of the research.

One premise of the research is that nowadays in almost every school there is a prevention program, but the statistical data on consumption do not decrease. We assume that with the renewal of the prevention methods it is possible to reduce tobacco consumption. For an efficient prevention we need to apply systemic approach and include factors like sociocultural background and ethnical environment.

Theoretical background: Our previous researches highlighted the fact that there is a need for changing paradigm concerning the prevention. The reinterpretation should mean the following:

  • It is shaped for the individual or the local community,
  • It enables the evolvement of the personality (facilitating the individualization process),
  • It satisfy the essential need of development – involving the local community in which the person lives, strengthening the outer and inner opportunities.,
  • Activating the competences of Self-development, self-defining,
  • Receptivity for change
  • empoverment,
  • to facilitate the commitment to healthiness and positive values.

We take also in consideration that behind addiction issues may stand disorder of emotional-motivational structures, deficiency of psychological immune system.

Method: questionnaire, interview. The intervention-research involves 1200 pupils from the VII and VIII grade from five different sociocultural and ethnical local communities and also other members of it: 100 parents, 100 pedagogues, 50 local citizens over 60 year old, 50 local decision maker and 6 local NGO.

Results: The presented data highlights that the prevalence of youth tobacco consumption justify to make prevention more effective. There is a need to strengthen the link between the adolescents and their community, to support the health protective activities of the community, to offer models for solving problems and to assure multilevel anti-smoking communication with sensitivity on the local cultural aspects.

The evidence based community prevention model is already outlined in the present stage of the research with its short, medium and long term intervention activities, which will try to reduce adolescents tobacco consumption and protect them from second hand smoking.

 

Oral presentation at conference 2013

NETT konferencia 2013 (Person who presented at the conference: Bernáth Krisztina)

Title: Possibilities of community develompnet in adolescent smoking prevention

Author(s) details:

dr.Albert-Lőrincz Enikő: Babeș-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Kolozsvár

dr.Albert-Lőrincz Márton: SAPIENTIA Tudományegyetem

dr.Szabó Béla: Babeș-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Kolozsvár

dr.Csibi Sándor: kutató, Marosvásárhelyi Pszicho-Pedagógiai Központ

drd. Bernáth Krisztina: Partiumi Keresztény Egyetem

Abstract

The deterioration of health condition indicator of the general population such as the mortality, illness and deviant behavior indicates upward trend (Albert-Lőrincz, 2011 Botescu 2011, Elekes 2011, EMCDDA 2012). It is well-known that all these would be easier and economical to prevent than to restore the overturned equilibrium. There is an individual and societal need to treat health as a value, to develop community mental health. There is a need to call those activities, which tries to positively influence the health behavior and the quality of life. While in traditional communities the cooperation and helping of each other were fundamental needs, in the present the protective function of the community loose, the common goals fall into atomized ones. This leads to individualization and inefficiency in problem solving. The present article focuses on one issue from these: analyzing the reasons of the widely spread phenomenon of adolescent smoking, while searches for possible solutions.. Our previous researches (Albert-Lőrincz et al. 2008) and based on the dedicated literature (Demetrovics, 2007, Pikó 2009) our opinion is that smoking is an adaptive issue which tries to restore the overturned equilibrium through an auxiliary activity. The adolescent smoking is often the expression of the search of self-identity or self-crisis.. From the possible tools that may be used we consider the strengthening the community identity as the most effective.

 

Oral presentation at conference 2013

The 27th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society, Bordeaux, France 2013 - (Person who presented at the conference: Csibi Sándor)

Title: Perceptions of social support, quality of life and self-image related to adolescents' smoking behavior

Author(s) details:

1. Albert-Lőrincz Enikő*, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Sociology and Social Work, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

2. Albert-Lőrincz Márton*, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences, Târgu-Mureş, Romania

3. Ábrám Zoltán*, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Târgu-Mureş, Romania

4. Csibi Monika, Partium Christian University, Oradea, Romania

5. Csibi Sándor*, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Sociology and Social Work, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

6. Szabó Béla*, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Sociology and Social Work, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Abstract

Our goal is to analyze the differences in adolescent's smoking behavior related to the perceived social support, self-appreciation of quality of life and the amount of time spent with peer. The instruments were: the questionnaire based on the HBSC survey containing healthy lifestyle and social context's items (Aszmann 2002), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and SWLS (Diener 1985). Participants were 447 students from Romanian high schools, aged between 17-18 years (mean age 17.4 years) from XI-XII degree classes. Our results showed that hard smokers spent a significantly greater amount of time with friends, but they perceive a relevantly inferior level of social support from family, lower health status and quality of life. Frequent smokers proved unfavorable school attitude, lack of satisfaction with their physical constitution and lower perceived level of support from teachers. We discussed the results’ usefulness in designing health prevention programs centered on smoking cessation and health behavior improvement.

Keywords: smoking behavior, perceived social support, peer influence, quality of life, school attitude

 

Oral presentation at conference 2014

POSTER: SRNT Europe 15th Annual Meeting will be held in Santiago de Compostela – Galicia, Spain. Meeting dates Thursday 18th to Saturday 20th September, 2014.

(Person who presented at the conference: Paulik Edit)

Title: Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in School-Children in Romania

Author(s) details:

Paulik E,  Department of Public Health, University of Szeged, Hungary

Albert-Lőrincz E, Faculty of Sociologie and Social Work, Babes-Bolyai University, Romania

Szabó B, Faculty of Sociologie and Social Work, Babes-Bolyai University, Romania

Kristie Barna Grigore, Faculty of Sociologie and Social Work, Babes-Bolyai University, Romania

Abstract:

Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke is particularly high in Central and Eastern Europe. Growing evidences support that secondhand smoke exposure increases the risk of a wide range of diseases, while smoke-free environment helps smokers to quit and reduces the risk of adolescents becoming smokers.

Aims: The aim of this study was to measure the occurrence of home-related secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in school-children in the framework of a Community-Based Tobacco Prevention Program in Transylvania.

Methods: The self-administered questionnaire-based study was conducted in three counties of Transylvania in 2014. Altogether the sample comprised 1398 school-children obtained from 36 schools, but because of the incompleteness of data, finally only 1313 questionnaires were involved. To reduce the selection bias the sample was weighted for 1200 according to the 36 layers of the sample. Data analyses were carried out by IBM SPSS 20.0.

Results: The mean age of the responders was 14.67 years (min. 13; max: 17). The gender distribution was balanced (49.5% males, 50.5% females). 43.5% of children’s home was defined as a smoke-free house. 46.8% of the children were exposed to secondhand smoke at home at least 1 day in the past 7 days prior to the study. Exposure to secondhand smoke was significantly higher among responders without smoking restriction, than among those with home smoking bans (69.0% vs. 17.2%).

Conclusions: Our results are in accordance with the findings of previous studies, such as smoke-free homes can reduce the secondhand smoke exposure among children. The prevalence of smoke-free homes and of the exposure to secondhand smoke among children seems to be a good outcome indicator of our community-based tobacco prevention program being implemented during the next months.

Research funding: This publication was made possible by Grant Number 1 R01TW009280-01 from the Fogarty International Center, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institutes on Drug Abuse, within the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the NIH.

 

Oral presentation at conference 2014

POSTER: SRNT Europe 15th Annual Meeting will be held in Santiago de Compostela – Galicia, Spain. Meeting dates Thursday 18th to Saturday 20th September, 2014.

(Person who presented at the conference: Bernáth Krisztina)

Title: Community-Based Prevention and Cessation of Tobacco Use among Young Adolescents from Romania

Authors:

Bernáth K, Department of Social Sciences, Partium Christian University, Romania (corresponding author: krisztinabernath@gmail.com)

Albert-Lőrincz E. Department of Social Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, Romania

Albert-Lőrincz M. Department of Humanities, Sapientia University, Romania

Szabó B. Department of Social Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, Romania

Barna K. Department of Social Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, Romania

Ábrám Z. Department of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Târgu Mureș, Romania

Abstract

Background: Smoking is known to be initiated during adolescence, making this age group a relevant target for intervention. Romania has among the highest percentage of smoker minors in the European Union and among the lowest age at which children try the first cigarette. A variety of psychosocial factors are involved in the initiation of tobacco use by adolescents. School environment and local community can assist adolescents to delay the average age of first tobacco use or in their attempts to quit tobacco use. A combination of counseling, peer and family support and, for some, nicotine replacement therapy, is the best approach to tobacco cessation. This paper reviews the main findings of the survey conducted in 21 schools from 3 central-Romanian counties analyzing the attitude of the adolescents and their environment towards tobacco use in order to elaborate the best strategies for a complex prevention program aiming at reducing tobacco use and exposure of the adolescents.

Aims: To summarize the evidence on adolescent and young adult prevention and cessation, and provide future directions for research and community-based prevention activities.

Methods: A cross-sectional research study was carried out among Romanian adolescents from 7th and 8th grade pupils in 3 counties (N=1200) in Spring 2014.

Results: Results show that more teenagers experiment with smoking rather than actually being regular smokers. Gender and residence type differences emerge in smoking behavior, with boys and pupils living in urban areas smoking more and starting cigarette use earlier. Different reasons are provided for initiating and maintaining this habit, confirming the need for different approaches to intervention. Smoking is significantly associated with having more friends who smoke; having a bad communication with parents, experiencing negative emotions, having a low social self-esteem and being engaged in other risk behaviors. Negative "smoker prototypes" as well as gender differences in choosing strategies to withstand taking up smoking were identified.

Conclusions: 

  • Firstly, interventions to prevent smoking initiation in teenagers should start early, integrate gender differences, focus on increasing the ability to resist peer pressure, develop negative smoker prototypes, promote control of negative emotions and aim at increasing frequency of alternative behaviors like physical exercise.
  • Second, smoking prevention programs should strengthen positive attitudes towards non-smoking, resistance against peer influences and enhance self-efficacy beliefs.
  • Finally, prevention and cessation programs need to address to the community and the environment of the teenager as well.

Research funding: Research reported in this publication was supported by the Fogarty International Center and the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01 TW009280-01. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Local partner institution: University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Târgu Mureș.

 

Oral presentation at conference 2014

SGEM Social Sciences and Arts Conferences – Albena, Bulgaria 1-9 Sept. 2014

Who is going to participate (and have an oral presentation on the following topic): Szabó Béla

SMOKING BEHAVIOR AND POSSIBLE INTERVENTION METHOD AMONG ROMANIAN ADOLESCENTS

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Béla Szabó. Babes-Bolyai University – Cluj Napoca, Romania

Prof. Dr. Enikő Albert-Lőrincz. Babes-Bolyai University – Cluj Napoca, Romania

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Márton Albert-Lőrincz. Sapientia – Erdélyi Magyar Tudományegyetem, Romania

PhD student Gergő Barna, Babes-Bolyai University – Cluj Napoca, Romania

PhD student Krisztina Bernáth. Babes-Bolyai University – Cluj Napoca, Romania

Prof. Dr. Zoltán Ábrám. University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Targu Mures, Romania

ABSTRACT

Context: There are many scientific articles and studies, both at national and international level, analyzing the adolescents smoking behavior and its influencing factors. One could find much information from these studies about the adolescents smoking habits and about different prevention methods. The present article originality – at least in Romanian context – consists in two new dimensions: one is to analyse not only the smoking behavior of the adolescents, but also their exposure to second hand smoking (SHS). The other dimension is related to the proposed intervention method to reduce the prevalence of smoking (and also SHS): utilizing the community intervention method.

Methodology: Three counties of Transylvania were chosen in order to shape a representative sample of 14-15 aged adolescents (in VII and VIII grade), including parameters such as the size of the settlement, type of school, location of school inside the settlement, language of education etc. For data collection a questionnaire was applied (in Romanian or Hungarian, according to the nationality of the respondents).

Results: The results show that there is a high second hand smoke exposure of the adolescents in different spaces of the community where they live. Moreover the exposure of home SHS is related with lower age at first try, higher probability of tobacco usage, higher probability of smoking friends etc. Therefore we think that only a community-level intervention would produce the most efficient results.

Keywords: adolescents, smoking, second hand smoking, community intervention

 

POSTER presentation at conference 2015

Albert-Lőrincz, Márton, Albert-Lőrincz, Enikő, Bernáth Krisztina, Gáspárik, Ildikó, Kristie L. Foley, Paulik, Edit, Szabó, Béla, A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITY INTERVENTION FOR ADOLESCENT SMOKING PREVENTION, 17th DKMT Euroregional Conference on Environment and Health, 5-6 June 2015, Szeged, Hungary - http://web.med.u-szeged.hu/puhe/DKMT2015/abstract-book.pdf 

ABSTRACT: Background: Tobacco use can be considered a lifestyle model. Smoking has got a social significance, it is based on models that are specific to various local communities. Therefore, we consider that the intervention must take place within communities, through anti-smoking communication and change of smoking behavior, by providing positive, healthy behavior patterns. This case study came into existence by way of the conceptualization of the experiences gathered while organizing community prevention in 38 schools from Harghita and Covasna counties.
Research design: The research encompasses two parts. In the first phase, 1200 teens (mean age: 14.67 years) from 3 counties of Transylvania (Romania) were questioned about their attitude and behavior towards smoking. In the second phase of the research, we developed and implemented a community intervention model adapted to the local communities from which the studied adolescents came from. 
Results: We developed a prevention program consisting of 5 interactive activities carried out in student communities, and 5 community activities in which parents and teachers from local communities were involved. We organized a series of community actions and implemented the prevention program, with the cooperation of local authorities and the media.
Conclusion: we were able to successfully carry out the intervention program in 20 schools (comprising more than 300 adolescents) with the help of 76 volunteers. The importance of the intergenerational communication and the positive effect of parent-adolescent activities were highlighted. During the common activities adolescents could experience situations in which they were given responsibilities and in which they were supported and appreciated for their effort. We set up a prevention network in the 3 counties included in our project. 
We sensitized local communities and decision makers on the issue of adolescent smoking. Each school comprised in the project elaborated its own plan for preventing smoking in schools. The idea of „smoke-free schools” was promoted, thus, smoke-free areas were created in order to protect students from passive smoking.
Based on the experiences gathered we have developed explanatory models with regard to the process of the community prevention. However, our main goal it's not the communication of the quantitative results, instead we intend to formulate the theoretical models that can be deriving from our analyses. Some of this models will be presented on this poster.
Keywords: smoking, community prevention, smoke-free schools, local community, levels of intervention

 

Oral presentation at conference 2015

Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, Ábrám Zoltán, Albert-Lőrincz Márton, Szabó Béla, Barna Katalin A közösségi reziliencia fejlesztésérén alapuló dohányzás megelőzés egy lehetséges modellje és néhány eredményességi mutatoi, Siofok, Magyar Addiktológiai Társaság X. Országos Kongresszusa 2015 november 27-28.

ABSTRACT: Háttér és célkitűzés 
Tanulmányunk a közösségi reziliencia fejlesztésének és a serdülőkori dohányzás megelőzésének elméleti összefüggéseit vázolja, majd a kutatási adatok tükrében mutatja be, hogy hogyan alakul a vizsgált serdülők dohányzáshoz való viszonya annak függvényében, hogy a serdülőnek van-e alkalma megtapasztalni a helyi közösségek, szomszédságok támogató, védő, szabályozó erejét. 
A tanulmány hátterében egy folyamatban lévő – a Marosvásárhelyi Orvosi és Gyógyszerészeti Egyetem és a Davidson College, USA közös, a dohányzás megelőzéssel kapcsolatos kutatása áll. 
Módszertan: Az empirikus vizsgálat első fázisában (T1) az adatfelvétel önkitöltős kérdőívvel történt (A minta mérete: 1313 válaszadó, 1200 esetre súlyozott adatbázis, A mintavétel típusa: véletlenszerű, rétegzett, többlépcsős minta. Rétegképző változók: megye, település méret, tanítás nyelve, osztály/évfolyam. Összességében 1313 tanulót VII és VIII osztályos tanulót kérdeztünk le, 26 településen, 36 iskolában, 72 osztályban. Az adatbázist 1200-ra súlyoztuk.) A második fázisban, egy év múlva, 2015 március (T2), a beavatkozás után, azokat mértük fel, akik a (T1) időben VII. osztályosok voltak. A minta felénél volt beavatkozása, a másik fele kontroll csoportként szolgált.
A beavatkozás 9 hónapig tartott 22 osztályban és 5 osztálytermi prevenciós tevékenységet és kortárs akciót, valamint 5 a helyi közösségeket is bevonó közösségi akciót foglalt magába. 
Eredmények és következtetés: 
Lényegesen alacsonyabb a rendszeresen dohányzók száma azok között a serdülők között, akik érzékelik a családi és közösségi tiltást a dohányzással kapcsolatban, illetve azoknál, akiknek nagyobb a szociális tőkéje. (Pl. 6,4% a rendszeresen dohányzók aránya azok között, akik több mint 30 szomszéddal vannak ismeretségi és kommunikációs viszonyban, ahhoz viszonyítva, hogy 33,4% dohányzik rendszeresen azok közül, akik kevesebb, mint 10 szomszéddal vannak személyes kapcsolatban.) 
Következtetésként megállapítható, hogy a közösség részéről védőfaktornak számít, ha megtörténik a serdülők bevonása a közös tevékenységekbe, felelősséggel járó szerepeket vállalhatnak; ha megélhetik az együttműködést kísérő jó közérzetet, közös élményekben részesülhetnek, és magukon érzékelhetik a közösség védő-szabályozó erejét. A dohányzásellenes kommunikáció és a dohányzás káros következményeinek ismerete szintén csökkenti a dohányzási rátát a serdülők körében. 

Gasparik Andrea Ildiko, Albert-Lorincz Eniko, Albert-Lorincz Marton, Barna Gergo, Bernath Krisztina, Paulik Edit, Szabo Bela, 2015: Differences in prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in Romania – a comparison between romanian and hungarian ethnic groups.  A VI-A CONFERINȚĂ NAȚIONALĂ DE TABACOLOGIE „Rolul femeii in limitarea fumatului– asumare, cauzalitate și impact” , Târgu Mureș, 28-30 Mai 2015

Abstract. Title: Differences in prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in Romania – a comparison between romanian and hungarian ethnic groups.
Authors: Gasparik Andrea Ildiko, Albert-Lorincz Eniko, Albert-Lorincz Marton, Barna Gergo, Bernath Krisztina, Paulik Edit, Szabo Bela
Background: According to european statistics, smoking prevalence in Hungary is higher than in Romania, and both of them significantly higher than the european mean.  
Objective of this work was to extract (from a large tobacco research) relevant data on ethnic differences regarding smoking prevalence among adolescents of 3 Romanian counties.
Methods:  A supervised self administered questionnaire based study was done in March 2o14. The  stratified random sample involved 519 romanian and 681 hungarian pupils, aged 13-14 from 26 settlements, 36 schools, respective 72 classes.
Results: Ethnic hungarian children smoked significantly more than romanians, however the average age when they first experienced doesn`t differe.
Results should animate further researches to make a deeper analysis of the differences. Cultural difference, proven by the Hungarian and Romanian country statistics is only one of the possible explanations of our findings. There must be other causes worth to be explored, linked to local particularities (economic, social factors, minority status).

Poster presentation at conference 2016

Albert-Lőrincz, Enikő, Albert-Lőrincz, Márton; Barna Grigore, Bernáth Krisztina; Gáspárik Ildikó; Paulik Edit, Szabó Béla, 2016: Adolescent Smoking and the Social Capital of Local Communities in Transylvania, Romania, SRNT 2016 Praga

Oral presentation at conference 2016

Albert-Lőrincz, Enikő; Albert-Lőrincz, Márton; Barna Katalin, Bernáth Krisztina; Gáspárik Ildikó; Paulik Edit; Szabó Béla, 2016: A short analysis of the symbols reflecting the relationship between adolescents and smoking behaviour. International Conference: "Social sciences and the contemporary challenges. 20 years of teaching sociology at the University of Oradea" Oradea, 9-10 June 2016

Abstract. The symbol analysis provides an opportunity to collect data which can be incorporated into theories regarding drug use and prevention models. We believe that the situations which led to poor self-management can be most easily approached with projection methods.
In 2014, we applied a pre-measurement survey based on a self-reporting questionnaire, using a representative sample of pupils from Mureș, Harghita and Covasna counties (Romania). We selected 36 schools from 26 localities and data was collected from 72 classes of 7th and 8th graders. In addition to the questions, the survey contained a part referring to outlining a key symbol related to smoking.
Our current presentation is based on data interpreted with qualitative methods.
Our analysis reveals those affective and motivational elements that we have discovered while getting deeper into the relationship between symbols and tobacco-related attitudes, as well as the internal needs which determine the attitudes and behaviour of adolescent smokers. 
We found that the symbols used to represent tobacco are 80% negative. We consider that adolescent smoking is associated with freedom, independence, self-reliance and the need to gain experience. Paradoxically, whereas adolescents enjoy smoking or they see it as a pass to join a peer group, at the same time, smoking attitudes ​are accompanied by anxiety and fear and are determined by feelings of curiosity, loneliness and inferiority.

ALBERT-LŐRINCZ Enikő, ALBERT-LŐRINCZ Márton, BARNA Katalin, BERNATH Krisztina, GÁSPÁRIK Ildikó, SZABÓ Béla, 2016: The role of peer groups in forming attitudes towards smoking among Young Adolescents from Romania, . International Conference: "Social sciences and the contemporary challenges. 20 years of teaching sociology at the University of Oradea" Oradea, 9-10 June 2016

Abstract. Background:Smoking is known to be initiated during adolescence, making this age group a relevant target for intervention. Romania has among the highest percentage of teen smokers from the European Union and among the lowest ages at which children try the first cigarette. A variety of psychosocial factors are involved in the initiation of tobacco use by adolescents. The role of socialization agents is highly important regarding this issue, as family models, the school environment and the local community can assist adolescents in delaying the average age of the first tobacco use or in their attempts to quit tobacco use. This paper reviews the main findings of a survey conducted in 21 schools from 3 counties located in central-Romanian, by analyzing the attitude of the adolescents and their peers towards tobacco use.
The aim of the paper is to summarize the results regarding the impact of peer groups on adolescents’ smoking behavior as a basis for a community-based prevention program for smoking cessation.  The data used in this paper was collected in a cross-sectional research study which was carried out among Romanian 7th and 8th graders from 3 counties (N=1200) in the Spring of 2014.
Results show that most teenagers experiment smoking rather than actually being regular smokers. Differences in smoking behavior emerge based on gender or residence type, with boys and pupils living in urban areas smoking more and starting cigarette use earlier. Different reasons are provided for initiating and maintaining this habit, confirming the need for different approaches during the intervention. Smoking is significantly associated with having more friends who smoke, as well as having a bad communication with parents, experiencing negative emotions, having a low social self-esteem and being engaged in other risk behaviors. Negative "smoker prototypes" as well as gender differences in choosing strategies to withstand taking up smoking were identified. 
Conclusions
First, interventions to prevent smoking initiation in teenagers should start early, integrate gender differences, focus on increasing the ability to resist peer pressure, develop negative smoker prototypes, promote control of negative emotions and aim at increasing frequency of alternative behaviors like physical exercise.
Secondly, smoking prevention programs should strengthen positive attitudes towards non-smoking, resistance against peer influences and enhance self-efficacy beliefs.
Finally, prevention and cessation programs need to address to the community and the environment of the teenager as well.

 Gasparik Andrea Ildikó, Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, Albert-Lőrincz Márton, Barna Grigore, Barna Katalin, Bernáth-Nagy Krisztina, Szabó Béla: 2015: Correlation between school performance and smoking prevalence , UMF Staff Conference, December 2015, UMF Tg. Mures 

Abstract. Various factors influence teenagers when they start smoking. Thus, prevalence need to be assessed in the context and in relationship with other characteristics.
 Objective: to assess the correlation between teenagers` smoking prevalence and their school performances. 
Methodology. We collected our data from 1313 (7th and 8th grade) students (multistage stratified cluster sampling) in 36 schools from 3 counties, using a five stage smoking scale, incorporated in a self-administered questionnaire with 61 questions and 210 variables.
Results. Compared to the prevalence of regular smokers - 12,9 % - among students with very low school performance, a rate of 6,2 and 2,7 was obtained among those with medium (rather low) and high academic results. Teens try out tobacco products regardless the qualities of the schools, however lower standard-schools doubles the risk compared to the higher ones (20% vs 10%).
Conclusions However, we cannot evaluate this correlation taking it out of the broader context (as social status, settlements` economic level, parents` education), the strong association between smoking prevalence and poor school performance surpasses that of the any other links observed among the variables.

Gáspárik Andrea Ildikó, Albert-Lőrincz Enikő, 2016: Who drains more? (Ki szívja meg (jobban)? Különböző etnikumú serdülőkorúak dohányzási prevalenciájának összehasonlítása),Transsylvanian Museum Society-Medical and Pharmaceutical Branch XXVI. Scientific Session, April 2016.

Abstract: Title Who drains more? Ethnic-specific smoking prevalence among teenagers.
A serdülőkorúak dohányzási szokásainak kialakulását számos biológiai, szociokulturális vagy személyiségi tényező befolyásolhatja. A kamaszkori kultúra, családi modellek, izgalomkeresés vagy egyes lelki állapotok öngyógyítási szándéka különböző mértékben járulhatnak hozzá a szokás kialakulásához. 
A magyarországi fiatalok cigarettafogyasztása a romániaiakénál magasabb értéket mutat, és mindkettő lényegesen meghaladja az európai átlagértéket. 
E vizsgálat célja a hazai serdülőkorúak dohányzási gyakoriságának elemzése, ezen belül a román és magyar fiatalok szokásainak összehasonlítása.
Módszertan.  26 település, 36 iskolájának 72 osztályában: 1200, rétegzett mintavétellel kiválasztott, hét és nyolcadikos diákot kérdeztünk. 
61 kérdéses, 210 változós önkitöltős kérdőívet használtunk.
Eredmények. A magyar nemzetiségű diákok szignifikánsan többet dohányoznak román etnikumú társaiknál (15, 4 % vs 9,3 %/ p-0,002).
Következtetések. Fontos volna a fenti jelenség okainak alaposabb vizsgálata. Esetleges más, önpusztító magatartásformák gyakoriságának felmérése. 
Meglátásunk szerint, a dohányellenes programok hatékonyságának növelése érdekében, a serdülőkorúak sajátosságaihoz igazított kampányformákat kéne kidolgozni.

Albert-Lőrincz, Enikő; Albert-Lőrincz, Márton; Barna Katalin, Bernáth Krisztina; Gáspárik Ildikó; Paulik Edit; Szabó Béla, Motivating Activities as Protective Factors in Adolescents’ Smoking Behavior, SRNT 2016 Praga

Abstract. Background:Smoking is known to be initiated during adolescence, making this age group a relevant target for the intervention. Romania has among the highest percentage of teen smokers in the European Union and among the lowest age rates at which children try the first cigarette. 
The aim of the paper is to summarize the results regarding the impact of peer groups and joint activities involving adolescents upon their smoking behavior in order to elaborate a community-based prevention program for smoking cessation. 
Methods:A cross-sectional study based on a self-administered questionnaire was done among 7th and 8th grade students from three counties from Transylvania, Romania. The random stratified sample involved 1,313 students from 26 localities, 36 schools, and 72 classes. The respondents’ smoking status was classified into three groups: current smokers, triers and never smokers, on the basis of five questions regarding their previous and current behavior. The impact of different type of activities (operationalized into independent variables such as joint and individual leisure time activities, network size, parents’ educational attainment, community involvement, respondent’s school achievement and smoking related knowledge) was measured in relation to smoking behavior. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to measure the impact of various types of protective and risk factors upon smoking.
Results show that most teenagers experiment with smoking rather than actually being regular smokers. Differences in smoking behavior depend on gender and residence type, with boys and pupils living in urban areas smoking more and starting cigarette use earlier. A series of reasons are provided for initiating and maintaining this habit, confirming the need for various approaches to intervention. Smoking is significantly associated with having more friends who smoke, having a low social self-esteem and being engaged in other risk behaviors. 
Interventions targeted at preventing the initiation of smoking in the case of teenagers should start at early ages, integrate gender differences, focus on increasing the ability to resist peer pressure and aim at increasing the frequency of engaging in motivating joint activities, as an alternative. 
Prevention and cessation programs need to address to the community and the environment of the teenagers, as well.

Andrea Ildiko Gasparik, Eniko Albert-Lorincz, Marton Albert-Lorincz, Krisztina Bernath, Bela Szabo, 2016: Family harmony: protective against smoking? UMF Staff- Scientific Session December 2016 

A pattern of dynamic interaction exists between developing adolescents and their social and interpersonal (e.g., family) environments. Neither specific kind of socialization experiences, such as those within the family or school, nor specific biological factors, can be isolated as sole factors that drive development. Isolation or auto-isolation, lack of a vision and perspectives, disparity of the traditional models may contribute to an increased vulnerability for smoking.
The purpose of this paper was to explore the psycho-social background differences between smoker and non-smoker teenagers. The randomized multistage stratified cluster sampling included 1249, seventh and eighth grade students in 3 Romanian districts. Anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaires were used with 61 questions, 210 variables.
The regression model has shown high degree of multicollinearity with the following correlated predictors: low school performance, superficial relations with parents, more fights between them,  frequent depressed periods and less comfort at school. These differences emphasize the importance of identifying causality, discovering the mechanisms of the complex network of psycho-social influences for better addressing the issue.

Educational posters in Romanian language

Poster 1 (click here to download)

Poster 2 (click here to download)

Poster 3 (click here to download)

Poster 4 (click here to download)

Poster 5 (click here to download)

 

Useful links and external documents

National reports

National Antidrug strategy 2013-2020 (in Romanian)

Probably the most effective anti-smoke campaign

 

Last update: 31.10.2016